Carrel, Alexis

SUBJECT AREA: Medical technology
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b. 28 June 1873 Lyon, France
d. 5 November 1944 Paris, France
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French surgeon and experimental biologist, pioneer of blood-vessel repair techniques and "in vitro" tissue culture.
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He entered the university of Lyon as a medical student in 1890, but although attached to the Chasseurs Alpins as a surgeon, and to the department of anatomy, he did not qualify as a doctor until 1900. Soon after, he developed an interest in the repair of blood vessels and reported his first successes in 1902.
In consequence of local political difficulties he left for Paris, and after a further year, in 1904, he became Assistant in Physiology at the University of Chicago. His further development of vascular surgical advances led to organ transplants in animals. By 1908 he had moved to in vitro cultivation of heart tissue from a chick embryo (a culture of which, in the care of an assistant, outlived him).
He returned to service in the French Army in 1914 and was associated with Dakin in developing the irrigation treatment of infected wounds. In 1930 he initiated a programme aimed at the cultivation of whole organs, and with the assistance of a pump developed by Charles Lindbergh he succeeded in maintaining thyroid gland and kidney tissue for some weeks. Something of a mystic, Carrel returned to France in 1939 to head his Institute for the Study of Human Problems.
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Principal Honours and Distinctions
Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology 1912.
Bibliography
1911, "The surgery of blood vessels", Johns Hopkins Bulletin.
1911, "Rejuvenation of cultures of tissues", Journal of the American Medical Association.
1938, The Culture of Organs, New York. 1938, Man the Unknown, New York.
Further Reading
R.Soupault, 1952, Alexis Carrel. 1873–1944, Paris (contains full bibliography of papers).
MG

Biographical history of technology. - Taylor & Francis e-Librar. . 2005.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • CARREL (ALEXIS) — CARREL ALEXIS (1873 1944) Chirurgien, sociologue et biologiste, qui a reçu en 1912 le prix Nobel de physiologie et de chirurgie physiologique pour la mise au point d’une méthode de suture des vaisseaux sanguins et qui jeta les premières bases des …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Carrel , Alexis — (1873–1944) French surgeon Carrel received his medical degree from the university in his native city of Lyons in 1900. In 1902 he started to investigate techniques for joining (suturing) blood vessels end to end. He continued his work at the… …   Scientists

  • Carrel, Alexis — (1873 1944)    surgeon, physiologist, Nobel laureate    Born in Foy lès Lyon and educated at the university of lyon, Alexis Carrel, who did his research both in France and in the united states, was awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology in 1912… …   France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present

  • Carrel, Alexis — born June 28, 1873, Sainte Foy lès Lyon, Fra. died Nov. 5, 1944, Paris French surgeon, sociologist, and biologist. He received a 1912 Nobel Prize for developing a way to suture (stitch) blood vessels and laid the groundwork for further studies of …   Universalium

  • Carrel, Alexis — ► (1873 1944) Fisiólogo francés. Fue premio Nobel de Medicina y Fisiología en 1912. Realizó experimentos sobre los vasos sanguíneos y trasplante y conservación de tejidos vivos. * * * (28 jun. 1873, Sainte Foy lès Lyon, Francia–5 nov. 1944,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Carrel,Alexis — Car·rel (kə rĕlʹ, kărʹəl), Alexis. 1873 1944. French born American surgeon and biologist. He won a 1912 Nobel Prize for his work on vascular ligature and grafting of blood vessels and organs. * * * …   Universalium

  • Carrel — Carrel, Alexis …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Alexis Carrel — Nombre …   Wikipedia Español

  • Alexis Carrel — (* 28. Juni 1873 in Lyon, (Frankreich); † 5. November 1944 in Paris) war ein französischer Chirurg und erhielt 1912 den Nobelpreis für Medizin. Alexis Carrel konzentrierte sich vor allem auf die experimentelle …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Carrel — (Alexis) (1873 1944) physiologiste et chirurgien français; auteur de l Homme, cet inconnu (1936). P. Nobel 1912 …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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